August 22, 2017 is the work of M. J. Maddox, PhD. The content is for parents, teachers, and mature students.

Dr. Maddox writes about School Reform at the online magazine Bellaonline.


King Arthur’s Sword Excalibur

Until recently, English-speaking children were exposed to beautifully illustrated children’s versions of Malory’s stories for their leisure time reading. In school, they studied Tennyson’s “Idylls of the King” in the classroom. Nowadays, they are more familiar with modern retellings that conflate Excalibur with the sword in the stone.

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Joan of Arc’s Feast Day is May 30

Joan of Arc’s feast day is May 30. She was burned at the stake in 1431, but not canonized until 1920. That event, like her death, was motivated by political interests.

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Walpurgisnacht and Saint Walburga

I have always harbored a particular dislike of Saint Boniface for chopping down that sacred oak tree.

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Happy Birthday, Will

William Shakespeare 1564-1616 –Chandos portrait 1610 attributed to John Taylor

William Shakespeare of Stratford-upon-Avon, England died on April 23, 1616. According to tradition, April 23 was also the date of his birth.

Thou art a Monument, without a tomb, And art alive still, while thy Book doth live, And we have wits to read,

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The Human Soul

Artist’s depiction of a soul being carried to Heaven

Back in the Middle Ages when there was just one official Church, all Christians were obligated to hold the same views on the matter of the human soul.

Inhabitants of the 21st century have considerably more options.

Here are some modern views of the human

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