According to the second creation account in the Hebrew Book of Genesis,
the LORD God planted a garden eastward in Eden; and there he put the man whom he had formed. –Gen. 2:8.
The Genesis account mentions certain geographical details:
And a river went out of Eden to water the garden; and from thence it was parted, and became into four heads. The name of the first is Pison: that is it which compasseth the whole land of Havilah… And the name of the second river is Gihon: the same is it that compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia. And the name of the third river is Hiddekel: that is it which goeth toward the east of Assyria. And the fourth river is Euphrates. –Gen. 2:10-14.
The mention of the River Euphrates ought to be a clue, but scholars and believers have never been able to agree as to an actual location. Some place the location in present day Iraq. Others in Jerusalem.
According to the Mormons (The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints), the Garden of Eden is believed to have been located in present-day Jackson County, Missouri.